1/1, 4/1, et. al.
specifications designation. Two numbers separated by a slash
indicate the number of inks used on each side of a sheet. For
example, 1/0 means 1 ink color on front, none on back (blank
or single-sided); 4/1 indicates 4- or full-color on front, 1
color on back.
color process (or full color)
in full color using four color separation negatives-cyan, magenta,
yellow, and black (CMYK).
Illustrator's file extension/file format, which is actually
a type of Encapsulated Postscript. Illustrator files are vector-based.
software program for the conversion of documents into the Portable
Document File (PDF) format. PDFs maintain the attributes (bold
and italic type, other formatting choices, and layout) assigned
to the printed original. Acrobat Reader is used to open and
of white space in a layout.
or "staircase" effect in a raster image, cased by an insufficient
number of image samples. See also: anti-aliasing.
up typeset or other graphic material as specified, using a base
or vertical line as the reference point.
channel reserved by some image-processing applications for masking
or retaining additional color information.
of a character where two lines meet at the top, an example of
this is the point on the letter A.
white space allowed in the margins of text and illustrations
when forming a foldout.
arts usage, all matter other than text material, e.g. illustrations
of a lower-case letter extending above the x-height. For example,
the upper half of the vertical in the letters b or h.
file containing ASCII characters only. The lowest common denominator
for exchanging text among programs. Almost any word processor
or desktop publishing program can read or write ASCII files.
Also known as text-only files.
requested by the author or author's representative after the
original copy has been typeset, including those made as a result
of errors in keying in the copy. Alternative terms: author's
corrections, artist's alterations.
copy sent to the author for approval. It is returned marked
"OK" or "OK with changes."
abbreviation for artwork.
that slant the opposite way from italic characters.
or bubble enclosing copy in an illustration. Used in cartoons.
prepress term referring to visible steps in shades of a gradient.
on which the bases of capital letters sit.
methods used to secure loose leaves or sections in a book, e.g.,
saddle-stitch, perfect bound.
represented by an array of picture elements, each of which is
encoded as one or more binary digits.
text of the work, but not including headlines.
of the type measured from the top of the tallest ascender to
the bottom of the lowest descender. Normally given in points,
the standard unit of type size.
lines, or solid colors that extend beyond the edge or edges
of a page.
impression made without using ink or foil.
description or commentary of a book or author on a book jacket.
a heavier, darker appearance. Most typefaces have a bold face.
decorative design or rule surrounding the matter on the page.
of text marked off by rules or white space and presented separately
from the main text and illustrations. Longer boxed sections
in magazines are sometimes referred to as sidebars.
dot preceding text to add emphasis.
of text, usually duplicated from accompanying text, enlarged
and set off in quotes and/or a box to draw attention to what
that is ready for reproduction.
line across the top of capital letters. The distance from the
cap line to the baseline is the cap size.
for capital letters.
and small caps
of type that shows capital letters used in the normal way while
the body copy is set in capital letters which are of a slightly
or lines of text that refer to information identifying a picture
coated with chemicals and dye which will produce copies without
carbon paper. Also referred to as NCR (No Carbon Required).
to the printer of an omission in the copy indicated as (^) showing
for the four process ink colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, black.
separate sections or leaves of a book together in the correct
order for binding.
separations, color seps
of a multi-colored original into the basic (or primary) process
colors of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK). These should
not be confused with the optical primaries (red, green, blue
of typeface in which the characters have an elongated appearance.
in which the subject has continuous shades of color or grey
without being broken up by dots. Continuous tones cannot be
reproduced in that form for printing, but must be screened to
translate the image into dots.
of tones in a photograph ranging from highlight to shadow.
of copyright gives protection to the originator of material
to prevent use without express permission or acknowledgement
of the originator.
printed on a sheet to indicate the trim or register marks.
of parts of a photograph or other original that are not required
to be printed or to fit a designated area. Cropping allows the
remaining parts of the image to be enlarged to fill the space.
describe typefaces that resemble written script.
of trimming a book after the cover has been attached to the
horizontal rule used for punctuation.
of a lower-case letter that extends below the x-height. For
example, the lower half of the letters y or j.
steel engraving stamp used to print an inked image or a metal
form used in die cutting a particular shape.
new form of printing (early 1990s) that is ideal for short runs,
as opposed to traditional offset lithography printing which
requires plates to be made and therefore has significant set-up
costs). Ideally suited for short full-color or spot color runs,
Variable Data Printing (VDP), and Print On Demand (POD).
an image or signal into binary form.
imaging systems that receive fully paginated materials electronically
from computers and expose this information to plates in platesetters
or imagesetters without creating film intermediates.
type used for headings, etc. Normally about 18 point or larger.
Two facing pages of pages of newspaper or magazine where the
textual material on the left hand side continues across to the
right hand side.
A unit that describes the resolution of an image or output device.
initial letter at the start of the text that drops into the
line or lines of text below.
term for the distribution of information which is stored, transmitted
and reproduced electronically. Teletext and Videotext are two
examples of this technology in its purest form, i.e., no paper.
Desktop publishing forms just one part of the electronic publishing
printing terms it is a square unit with edges equal in size
to the chosen point size. It gets its name from the letter M
which originally was as wide as the type size.
used in punctuation the length of one em.
images formed by using a recessed die.
approximately half the width of an em dash.
of measurement that is half as wide as an em.
of Encapsulated PostScript, the graphics file format used by
the PostScript language. EPS files can be either binary or ASCII.
The term EPS usually implies the file contains a bit-mapped
representation of the graphics for display purposes. In contrast,
PostScript files include only the PostScript commands for printing
with a slightly wider body, giving a flatter appearance.
for typeface referring to a family in a given style.
along the left margin.
along the right margin.
produced circular used for promotional distribution.
set of characters in a typeface.
word processing to describe a repetitive letter in which the
names and addresses of individuals are automatically generated
from a database (mail merge) or typed individually.
color process (or 4-color, full color)
in full color using four color separation negatives-cyan, magenta,
yellow, and black (CMYK).
which has been printed on one side only and then folded with
two right angle folds to form a 4-page uncut section.
page where both sides fold into the gutter in overlapping layers.
Used to accommodate maps into books.
of luminance values for evaluating shading through white to
black. Frequently used in discussions about scanners as a measure
of their ability to capture halftone images. Basically the more
levels the better, but with correspondingly larger memory requirements.
blank area between left and right pages.
rule that can be printed.
reproduced by breaking down the original tone into a pattern
of dots of varying size. Light areas have small dots and darker
areas or shadows have larger dots.
plate or film placed between the original photograph and the
film to be exposed. The screen carries a network of parallel
lines. The number of lines to the inch controls the coarseness
of the final dot formation. The screen used depends on the printing
process and the paper to be used--the higher the quality, the
more lines can be used.
bound book with a separate stiff board cover.
to the arrangement of pages on a printed sheet, which when the
sheet is finally printed on both sides, folded and trimmed,
will place the pages in their correct order.
to the printer for the inclusion of additional copy.
Pictures Expert Group. The JPEG file format is a compressed
format, with some loss of quality during compression. A popular
Internet format due to the generally small size of pictures.
File formats of .jpg, .jpeg, and .jpe. Generally not acceptable
for print use.
of text along a margin or both margins. This is achieved by
adjusting the spacing between the words and characters as necessary
so that each line of text finishes at the same point.
of spacing between certain letter pairs, A and V for example,
to obtain a more pleasing appearance.
with a texture made up of fine lines very close together, that
have soft edges. Usually used for high quality stationery.
transparent plastic coating applied to paper or board to provide
protection and give it a glossy finish.
which the width used is greater than the height. Also used to
indicate the orientation of tables or illustrations which are
printed 'sideways'. (see Portrait ).
added between lines of type to space out text and provide visual
separation of the lines. Measured in points or fractions thereof.
Named after the strips of lead which were inserted between lines
of metal type.
matter printed below an illustration, mostly referred to as
a caption. Also an explanation of signs or symbols used in timetables
of space between the letters of words to increase the line-length
to a required width or to improve the appearance of a line.
paper with a "woven" look to it like linen cloth.
Usually used for high quality stationery.
process based on the principle of the natural aversion of water
to grease. The photographically prepared printing plate, when
being made, is treated chemically so that the image will accept
ink and reject water. The image carrier is said to be planographic,
or flat and smooth. See also offset lithography.
for logotype. A word or combination of letters set as a single
unit. Also used to denote a specially styled company name designed
as part of a corporate image.
of binding which allows the insertion and removal of pages for
letters in a font of type.
areas of a page.
visual of a publication or design.
of superimposing halftone screens at the wrong angle thereby
giving a checkered effect on the printed halftone. Normally
detected during the stage of progressive proofs.
in which all characters occupy the same amount of horizontal
width regardless of the character.
image formed from the assembling of several images.
Carbon Required. See carbonless.
A printing method whereby the image is transferred from a plate
onto a rubber covered cylinder from which the printing takes
place. Patented by Johann Alois Senefelder circa 1818.
Print On Demand)
to describe the degree to which paper will show print through.
above the true center of the page which will not appear 'low'
as the geometric center does.
A technique in which any printed, typed, or handwritten copy
or graphic images are scanned by an electronic reader (scanner)
that converts the information into a form that can be read into
a computer as actual text rather than just a picture.
type on its own at the top or bottom of a page.
in which the characters are formed with only the outline defined
rather than from solid strokes.
paper required to compensate for spoilage in printing. Also
used to refer to a quantity produced above the number of copies
numbering of pages in a book.
name for an ink color matching system. Also known as PMS (Pantone
Matching System) with colors referred to as "PMS colors" (e.g.
PMS 185 red). Pantone is a spot color system.
of folding; e.g., two parallel folds will produce a six page
method of binding paperback books. After the printed sections
having been collated, the spines will be ground off and the
cover glued on.
industry unit of measurement. There are 12 points to a pica,
one pica is approximately 0.166in.
element. The smallest tonal element in a digital imaging or
unit of type size of which there are 72 to the inch (one point
is approximately 0.01383in). Point size is the measured from
the top of the ascender to the bottom of the descender.
A computer file format that preserves a printed or electronic
document's original layout, fonts, and graphics as one unit
for electronic transfer and viewing. The recipient uses compatible
"reader" software (e.g., Adobe Acrobat Reader) to access and
print the PDF file.
image or page where the height is greater than the width.
) Adobe Systems PostScript isn't an image format, per se-it's
a page description language, originally conceived so computers
could send very accurate page descriptions to the then new high
resolution laser printers. You can save pictures as PostScript,
but you'll end up with a very large file. PostScript is not
a very efficient format, but its advantage is all plain text-you
can modify a PostScript file with any text editor, if you know
what you're doing.
) Adobe Systems, Inc. tradename for a page description
language that enables imagesetters and other output devices
developed by different companies to interpret electronic files
from any number of personal computers and off-the-shelf software
procedure using a checklist to verify that all components of
an electronic file are present and correct prior to submitting
the document for high-resolution output.
On Demand (POD)
printing is used to print a small quantity of a piece. Traditionally,
offset printing was used and typically, a large quantity produced,
creating inventory. This is no longer necessary with POD. Only
the quantity immediately needed is produced.
magenta and yellow. These three colors when mixed together with
black will produce a reasonable reproduction of all other colors.
obtained from inked type, plate, block, screen, or electronically
(e.g., PDF proof) for checking purposes.
of spacing whereby each character is spaced to accommodate the
varying widths of letters or figures, so increasing readability.
Books and magazines are set proportionally spaced, typewritten
documents are generally monospaced.
Photoshop's native format, which stores all of its layer and
other image data. Photoshop files are raster-based.
lines of type which are of unequal length and which are aligned
at either the right or left hand column.
composed of tiny dots or pixels. Adobe Photoshop (PSD), TIFF,
BMP and JPG files are examples of raster-based images. To be
print-ready, raster files must be at least 300dpi (dots per
of converting mathematical and digital information into a series
of variable-density pixels.
color printing to position the paper correctly. Usually crosses
positioning of an image especially when printing one color on
density of dots or pixels on a page or display usually measured
in dots per inch. The higher the resolution, the smoother the
appearance of text or graphics. (2) The precision with which
an optical, photographic, or photomechanical system can render
visual image detail. Resolution is a measure of image sharpness
or the performance of an optical system. It is expressed in
lines per inch or millimeter.
of altering artwork or color separations to correct faults or
enhance the image.
Blue--the three colors used in computer monitors to create all
color variations. Not a suitable basis for printing, which is
based on CMYK color.
as a white image out of a solid background.
A standard format developed by Microsoft Corporation, which
is normally used as a well-understood cross-platform word processing
document format, but which can store pictures as well as text.
RTF files are actually ASCII files with special commands to
indicate formatting information, such as fonts and margins.
As image storage formats go, though, RTF is as inefficient as
has vertical stems as distinct from italics or oblique which
are set at angles.
text wrap, wraparound ) The ability within a program
to run text around a graphic image within a document, without
the need to adjust each line manually.
of binding where the folded pages are stitched through the spine
from the outside, using wire staples. Usually limited to 64
that has no serifs (small strokes at the end of main stroke
of the character).
within a program to reduce or enlarge the amount of space an
image will occupy. Some programs maintain the aspect ratio between
width and height while scaling, thereby avoiding distortion.
of calculating the amount of enlargement or reduction necessary
to accommodate a photograph within the area of a design.
cross stroke at the end of the main stroke of the letter.
of capital letters which are smaller than standard and are equal
in size to the lower case letters for that type size.
bound with a paper back cover, also known as "paperback."
edge at the back of a book.
offset printing, this is any stand-alone ink color that uses
its own plate and not a combination of CMYK. It's typically
a custom hand-mixed ink, fluorescent, or metallic. Digitally,
a color can be designated a spot color, but can be based on
CMYK formulas. Generally, the more spot colors used, the more
expensive it will be to print. Pantone is the dominant spot
color system in Europe and the United States.
in proof correction work to cancel a previous correction. From
the Latin, "let it stand."
characters set below the normal letters or figures.
characters set above the normal letters or figures.
runaround , wraparound ) The ability within
a program to run text around a graphic image within a document,
without the need to adjust each line manually.
finishing process producing a raised image imitating die stamping.
The process takes a previously printed image which before the
ink is dry is dusted with a resinous powder. The application
of heat causes the ink and powder to fuse and a raised image
Image File Format. TIFF was a large, unwieldy 24-bit format
until version 6 came out, which supported LZW compression. This
compression, however, made TIFF incompatible with different
programs on different computers. TIFF is, nonetheless, a very
popular professional graphics format.
of the finished product to the correct size. Marks are incorporated
on the printed sheet to show where the trimming is to be made.
for storing digital typefaces developed by Adobe Systems. The
most popular typeface format for PostScript printers.
surface carrying the image of a type character cast in metal.
Also used to refer to a complete set of characters forming a
family in a particular design or style.
for typographical error. An error in the typeset copy.
and planning of printed matter using type.
for UPPER and lower case.
Gives protection to authors or originators of text, photographs
or illustrations etc, to prevent use without permission or acknowledgment.
The publication should carry the copyright mark c, the name
of the originator and the year of publication.
Data Printing (VDP)
(or "variable") elements are printed (text or images)
on individual pieces (e.g., a marketing piece that features
a different person's name or target company logo on each piece).
Involves the use of a digital press and a computer database
containing all of the variable elements. Ideally suited for
advertising and direct marketing projects.
process whereby a transparent varnish is applied over the printed
sheet to produce a glossy finish.
images are comprised of geomatric shapes such as lines, circles,
rectangles and text. They are versatile for many applications
as they can be scaled smaller or larger without compromising
image quality. Adobe Illustrator (AI) files are examples of
to adjust the interline spacing (leading) and manipulation of
text in fine increments to make columns and pages end at the
same point on a page.
incorporated in the paper making process showing the name of
the paper and/or the company logo.
of boldness or thickness of a letter or font.
word left on the last line of a paragraph which falls at the
top of a page.
Metafile Format. An intermediate vector format for Windows programs
to use when interchanging data.
of printing where pages are imposed in one form or assembled
on one film. One side is then printed and the sheet is then
turned over and printed from the other edge using the same form.
The finished sheet is then cut to produce two complete copies.
of printing where pages are again imposed together. The sheet
is then printed on one side with the sheet being turned or tumbled
from front to rear to print the opposite side.
metafile format, used by WordPerfect software on various platforms.
It supports bitmapped, vector and EPS data.
runaround , text wrap ) The ability within
a program to run text around a graphic image within a documents,
without the need to adjust each line manually.
See Is What You Get (pronounced wizzywig) Computer screen displays
that approximate the true size and true shape of typographic
characters, rules, tints, and graphics.
See Is What You Print (pronounced wizzywip). Refers to the ability
of a computer systems to print colors exactly as they appear
on a monitor. WYSIWYP printing requires a special program, called
a color management system (CMS) to calibrate the monitor and
of a letter excluding the ascenders and descenders; e.g., 'x',
which is also height of the main body.
process in which the image is formed using the electrostatic
charge principle. The toner replaces ink and can be dry or liquid.
Once formed, the image is sealed by heat. Most laser printers
use this method of printing.
Industries of the Gulf Coast, Inc.
Desktop Publishing Company, Ltd.